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Parkinson bradykinesia correlates with EEG background frequency and perceptual forward projection

Parkinson bradykinesia correlates with EEG background frequency and perceptual forward projection

Authors: 
M. Beudel, E. Roosma, O.E. Martinez Manzanera, T. van Laar, N.M. Maurits, B.M. de Jong
Year: 
2015
Journal: 
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
Abstract: 

Background
To deal with processing-time in the nervous system, visuomotor control requires anticipation. An index for such anticipation is provided by the ‘flash-lag illusion' in which moving objects are perceived ahead of static objects while actually being in the same place. We investigated the neurophysiological relation between visuomotor anticipation and motor velocity in Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls.

Methods
Motor velocity was assessed by the number of keystrokes in 30s (‘kinesia score’) and visuomotor anticipation in a behavioural flash-lag paradigm while electroencephalography data was obtained. PD patients (n = 24) were divided in a ‘PDslow’ and a ‘PDfast’ group based on kinesia score.

Results
The PDslow group had a lower kinesia score than controls (resp. 40.3 ± 1.7 and 64.9 ± 4.6, p < 0.001). The flash-lag illusion was weaker in the PDslow group than in controls (resp. fractions 0.32 ± 0.04 and 0.50 ± 0.09 of the responses indicating perceived lagging, p = 0.03). Furthermore, the magnitude of the flash-lag illusion correlated with the kinesia score (cc = 0.45, p = 0.02). Finally, electroencephalography background frequency was lower in the PDslow group than in controls (resp 8.24 ± 0.24 and 9.1 ± 0.32 Hz, p = 0.01) and background frequency correlated with the kinesia score (cc = 0.58, p = 0.001).

Conclusions
The decreased flash-lag illusion and lower electroencephalography background frequency in more bradykinetic PD patients provides support for disturbed visuomotor anticipations, putatively caused by reduced, sub-cortically mediated, network efficiency. This suggests a link between anticipation in early-stage visual motion processing and motor preparation.

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