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EEG and implanted sources in the brain

EEG and implanted sources in the brain

Authors: 
van Burik M.J. & Peters M.J.
Year: 
1999
Journal: 
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Abstract: 

Localisation procedures are based on models of the EEG that are relatively simple. The models are based on assumptions and choices of parameters that can be mistaken. Thus, it is crucial to validate the localisation procedures used in EEG. One of the options is to use the data obtained with electrodes that are implanted within the brain of an epileptic patient as part of the pre-surgical evaluation. When one of two neighbouring electrodes is used as a current source and the other as a current sink this can be regarded as a current dipole. The current injected has to be below the threshold for activation of cells. The position of this dipole can be deduced from magnetic resonance or X-ray images. The current dipole gives rise to a potential distribution at the scalp that can be measured by EEG. The measurements can be compared with the potential distribution that is calculated in a forward computation. Another method is to use the measured potential at the scalp to localize the source and to compare the result with the actual position of the dipole. In this paper the measured potential distributions at the scalp due to implanted dipoles were used to evaluate different volume conductor models. Since intracerebral and subdural electrodes were introduced through trephine holes over the fronto-central areas, and the diameter of the holes was rather large, approximately 23 mm, special effort was put into modelling the skull. Two important assumptions could be validated in this study: the electric currents within the head are Ohmic and a dipole can be used to model the induced electric activity of pairs of contacts on subdural electrodes or intra cerebral electrodes.

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